Difference between revisions of "Basic maneuvers/ko"

From Kerbal Space Program Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
m (공전 궤도 올라가기)
m (공전 궤도의 모양 바꾸기)
Line 46: Line 46:
==공전 궤도의 모양 바꾸기==
==공전 궤도의 모양 바꾸기==
통상, 궤도회전방향 추진(prograde)궤도를 '''크게''' 만들고 반대인 궤도역회전방향 추진(retrograde; 이하 '역추진')은 '''작게''' 만든다..
통상, 궤도회전방향 추진(prograde)궤도를 '''크게''' 만들고 반대인 궤도역회전방향 추진(retrograde; 이하 '역추진')은 '''작게''' 만든다.
근점(periapsis)에서의 역추진은 원점(apoapsis)을 낮춘다. 반대의 경우 원점의 고도가 높아진다.
근점(periapsis)에서의 역추진은 원점(apoapsis)을 낮춘다. 반대의 경우 원점의 고도가 높아진다.
원점에서의 역추진은 근점을 낮추고, 반대의 경우 근점을 고도가 높아진다.
원점에서의 역추진은 근점을 낮추고, 반대의 경우 근점을 고도가 높아진다.
==궤도 경사각(Orbital Inclination) 맞추기==
==궤도 경사각(Orbital Inclination) 맞추기==

Revision as of 22:20, 8 October 2014

이 문서는 궤도 비행, 수학, 배경지식, 동영상 정보 등에 대한 종합적인 핵심요약인셈이다 (다른 어떤 문서보다 좋은 정보다). 게임 중 바로 볼 수 있는 참고자료의 역할도 한다.

공전 궤도 올라가기

  1. 최소 10 km를 수직 상승한다. 아래 최적 상승 속도표 참조.
  2. 10 km 도달후, 동쪽으로 서서히 기울이며 중력 기동(gravity turn)을 시작한다 (항법구navball에서 90도 방향, 통상 발사대의 오른쪽). 다른 방향으로 기울일 수도 있으나, 커빈의 자전방향인 동쪽으로 비행하는 것이 연료를 절약하게 해준다.
  3. 원점(apoapsis)이 70 km 이상 될 때까지 가속한다 (키보드의 'M' 단추를 누르고 바뀐 화면에서 마우스 커서를 원점 분기점-Ap node- 위에 위치시키면 숫자가 표시됨) - 커빈의 대기권 고도가 70km), 100km가 이상적임.
  4. 엔진 정지 ('x' 단추 누름) 후 원점(apoapsis point)에 도착할 때까지 대기.
  5. 근점(periapsis)이 100 km가 될때까지 궤도회전방향(prograde: 직진방향; 항법구navball에서 녹색 원으로 표시)으로 가속.

상승 중 중력가속도에 근접하면 연료를 절약할 수 있다. 낮은 속도는 중력에 의해, 높은 속도는 공기저항에 의해 delta-V를 낭비하게 된다:

고도 (m) 중력가속도 (m/s)
500 105
1,000 110
2,000 120
3,000 130
5,000 160
6,000 180
7,000 200
8,000 220
10,000 260 (방향전환을 시작해야됨!)
13,000 350
15,000 425
16,000 470
32,000 2250

공전 궤도의 모양 바꾸기

통상, 궤도회전방향 추진(prograde)은 궤도를 크게 만들고 반대인 궤도역회전방향 추진(retrograde; 이하 '역추진')은 작게 만든다.

근점(periapsis)에서의 역추진은 원점(apoapsis)을 낮춘다. 반대의 경우 원점의 고도가 높아진다.

원점에서의 역추진은 근점을 낮추고, 반대의 경우 근점을 고도가 높아진다.

궤도 경사각(Orbital Inclination) 맞추기

If you want to orbit on the same plane as another object (planet, ship, etc.), set it as your target in the map view. You will see two green arrows, labeled "ascending node" and "descending node," where the two orbital planes cross.

The direction the craft needs to burn depends on which direction the current orbit is off from the target orbital inclination. When hovering over the ascending or descending node markers, it will show the difference in degrees. Both show the same difference, but the descending node show the value as a negative number while the ascending node show the value as a positive one. If the craft is passing through the ascending node, where the angle is positive, it needs to burn antinormaldefault (South from an equatorial orbit), while if it's passing through the descending node, and the angle is negative, it should burn normaldefault (North from an equatorial orbit).

If you need several burns to get to your desired inclination, remember that if you burn "normal" on one node you need to burn "antinormal" on the other to keep going the same direction.

It might also help to plan your burns using the orbital maneuver planning system in the map view, where normal and antinormal directions are labeled with purple icons. Matching orbital inclination is a crucial first step in a rendezvous or docking procedure.

Docking / Rendezvous

An orbital rendezvous is one of the most challenging maneuvers, requiring a perfect match in orbit and position. Follow the steps below to get it right on your first try and feel like a space wizard. These steps also work for getting into orbit around planets and moons.

  1. Go to the map view and use the maneuver tool.
  2. Begin by matching your orbital inclination as described above. During the procedure below occasionally check to ensure that the inclination is exactly zeroed and make correction burns as necessary.
  3. Bring one point on your orbit (ideally an apsis) tangent to the target orbit. You will see an orange/purple pair of arrows. Each colored arrow corresponds to the relative position of you and your target. The orange is the nearest encounter, and the purple is the next encounter after that.
  4. At the point of nearest encounter maneuver to make:
    1. your orbits as close as possible to each other.
    2. the next encounter (probably right back here) to within 0.5 km or so.
  5. On reaching that encounter, burn to match velocity. To do this, go back to the staging or docking screen. Click on the "point of reference" on the Navball until it displays the relative target velocity. Rotate the "Level indicator" default (which indicates the direction your vehicle is pointing) until it is aligned with "Retrograde" marker default and burn until you bring the relative target velocity (displayed at the top of the Navball) close to zero (ideally less than 1–2 m/s). At this point you have brought your vehicle close to the target and almost stationary relative to the target - your orbits and velocities should now be nearly identical, and position separated only by a fraction of a kilometer.
  6. Now, rotate so that the "Level indicator" is aligned with the "Target Prograde" marker default. This points the nose of your vehicle towards the target. You should keep these markers aligned as you approach the target until you are within a few metres and ready to make the final docking maneuvers. Using the SAS may help with this.
  7. Activate your RCS system, this gives you the finest control of your approach.
  8. Press the "H" key to start moving towards the target. You should keep the relative velocity low as you approach (less than 10 m/s when more than 500m away, slower as you approach). You should see the "Prograde" default marker line up with the "Target Prograde" marker default(check that you navball is still has the "Target" as its "Point of Reference"). Use the lateral thrust keys ("I","J","K" and "L") to adjust the "Prograde" marker as you approach, and keep it lined up with the "Target Prograde" marker.
  9. As you get closer, use the "N" key to slow your approach. Slow down gradually to ~1 m/s by the time you are within 50 meters or so. Eventually come to a stop (0 m/s relative velocity) close to the target.
  10. Try not to bump into anything while you are docking. See the docking article for how to actually connect your vessels.

See also