Difference between revisions of "Kerbin"

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{{Planetbox
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{{Infobox/Body}}
|Class=Planet
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|File=Kerbin18.png
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'''Kerbin''' is the home planet of the [[Kerbal]]s, the location of the [[Kerbal Space Center|Space Center]], and the main focus of [[Kerbal Space Program]]. It is also the [[w:Earth|Earth]] analog for the game and has two [[moon]]s named '''[[Mun]]''' and '''[[Minmus]]'''.
|Parent=Kerbol
 
|smaxis=13,599,840,256
 
|apoap= 13,599,840,256 <!-- from Kerbol's center, not its surface -->
 
|periap=13,599,840,256 <!-- from Kerbol's center, not its surface -->
 
|orbecc=0
 
|orbinc=0
 
|anomaly=3.14
 
|orbps=9203544.61750141
 
|orbph=2,556.5
 
|orbv=9,284.5
 
|radius=600000
 
|mass=5.29157926281091e22
 
|gravPar=3531600000000
 
|gravityv=9.81
 
|sidrot=21600
 
|sidv=174.5
 
|SoI=84159286.4796305
 
|atmosyorn=Yes
 
|atmoskPa=101.327
 
|atmosatm=1
 
|atmossh=5000
 
|T-minC=(-40.19)
 
|T-minK=232.96
 
|T-maxC=20
 
|T-maxK=293.15
 
|O2yorn=Yes
 
}}
 
  
'''Kerbin''' is the home planet of the [[Kerbal]]s, the location of the [[Kerbal Space Center|Space Center]], and the main focus of [[Kerbal Space Program]]. It is the [[w:Earth|Earth]] analog for the game. It has two [[moon]]s, named '''[[Mün]]''' and '''[[Minmus]]'''.
+
Kerbin is the third planet in [[orbit]] around the star [[Kerbol]]. It is the third largest [[celestial body]] that orbits Kerbol, following [[Jool]] and [[Eve]]. Jool's moon [[Tylo]] has the same radius of Kerbin, though it may be classified as larger, as the highest point on Tylo is about 5&nbsp;km higher than the highest point on Kerbin. However, Tylo has only 80&nbsp;% of Kerbin's mass.
  
Kerbin is the third planet in [[orbit]] around the star [[Kerbol]]. It is the third largest planet (after [[Jool]] and [[Eve]]) and the fourth largest celestial object around Kerbol (with [[Tylo]], a moon of Jool, being slightly larger).
+
Reaching a stable orbit around Kerbin is one of the first milestones a player might achieve in the game. With the introduction of version [[1.0.3]], attaining low Kerbin orbit requires a [[delta-v|Δv]] of approximately 3400&nbsp;m/s (vacuum), though the exact amount depends on the efficiency of the ascent profile and the aerodynamics of the launch vehicle and payload. The only planet that requires a higher Δv to attain orbit is [[Eve]]. Many interplanetary missions expend over half of their Δv in reaching Kerbin orbit. The velocity required to escape a body from a given altitude is always exactly the square root of two times the velocity of a circular orbit around the body at that height, leading one observer to remark:
 +
{{Quote
 +
|If you can get your ship into orbit, you're halfway to anywhere.
 +
|Robert Heinlein
 +
|quoted on page 194 of ''A Step Farther Out'' by Jerry Pournelle}}
  
Reaching a stable orbit around Kerbin is one of the first milestones a player might achieve in the game. Achieving such an orbit with a fuel-optimal ascent<ref>A fuel-optimal ascent is one which (a) minimizes velocity losses to gravity and [[atmosphere|atmospheric drag]] and (b) launches eastward (toward the 90 degree heading) to gain 174.5 m/s of orbital velocity for free, thanks to Kerbin's rotation.</ref> requires a delta-V of ≈4500 m/s,<ref>See [http://forum.kerbalspaceprogram.com/showthread.php/24017-Least-delta-v-to-orbit this challenge on the forum] and a popular [http://i.imgur.com/CEZS1.png Kerbin delta-V chart]</ref> the second largest of all celestial bodies with a solid surface after [[Eve]]. For many interplanetary missions, this represents over half of the flight's total delta-V requirement. (This is also true of Earth-based interplanetary spaceflights, leading one observer to remark that "If you can get your ship into orbit, you're halfway to anywhere."<ref>Robert Heinlein, quoted on page 194 of ''A Step Farther Out'' by Jerry Pournelle.</ref>)
+
== In-game description ==
 +
{{Quote
 +
|A unique world, Kerbin has flat plains, soaring mountains and wide, blue oceans. Home to the Kerbals, it has just the right conditions to support a vast, seemingly undepletable population of the eager green creatures.<br />
 +
<br />
 +
''Reaching a stable orbit around Kerbin is one of the first things budding space programs strive for. It is said that those who can get their ship into orbit are halfway to anywhere.''
 +
|[[Kerbal Astronomical Society]]}}
  
 
== Topography ==
 
== Topography ==
 +
[[File:Kerbin heightmap.jpg|thumb|left|Topographical representation of Kerbin's surface as of 0.18.2. Click for high resolution. by Zeroignite]]
 +
[[File:TallestMountain_small.png|thumb|left|Kerbal at Kerbin's highest peak]]
 +
 +
Kerbin has a roughly equal distribution of [[ocean|liquid surface water]] and solid land, with polar ice caps and scattered deserts. Some of its mountains exceed 6&nbsp;km in height, with the tallest peak being 6764.1&nbsp;m in altitude at the coordinates 46°20'17"&nbsp;E 61°35'53"&nbsp;N. The lowest point is almost 1.4&nbsp;km deep and about 313° south-west of the Kerbal Space Center.
 +
 +
=== Craters ===
 +
[[File:KerbinCraterElevation.jpg|thumb|left|Terrain model centered on Kerbin's most pronounced craters]]
 +
 +
Unlike other bodies in its system, Kerbin has few visible craters because its environment would erode craters from the few meteors that avoid the gravity or surface of its large moon and survive entry. Nevertheless, some geological formations indicate that bodies have violently collided with Kerbin: a planetary feature appears to be an impact crater, while a secondary rupture lies on the other side of the planet (made by the intense [http://files.mundos-fantasticos.com/200000857-6eb2d6fab1/waves.jpg longitudinal], or P-wave [http://tpsearthspace12student.wikispaces.com/file/view/PwavesSwaves.jpg/113267379/PwavesSwaves.jpg earthquakes] that ensue.) Both are in excess of 100&nbsp;km diameter, and the main crater lies along the far-western coastline. The uplift is easily visible as a series of islands, and the feature has a central peak that pokes up through the water (also known as a rebound peak.) The other, and smaller of the two, is near the prime meridian in the northern hemisphere and is more easily missed, but its uplift rims are visible, and it also has a central rebound peak.
 +
 +
== Biomes ==
 +
[[File:KerbinBiomeMap.png|left|thumb|The biomes on Kerbin as of 0.90]]
 +
 +
Before 0.90 Kerbin was one of the few bodies with multiple [[Biome]]s, Kerbin was second only to the Mun in number of biomes it has. Following the 0.90 update all celestial bodies have biomes. [[Science]] [[Science#Activities|experiments]] can be performed at all biomes, though Kerbin's low multipliers result in less impressive results than more distant worlds. Kerbin's biomes show a loose correlation with Earth's biomes and geographic features. Uniquely, Kerbin has 33 location biomes at KSC, these are comprised of each building and their props, the crawlerway, the flag, and KSC itself; these give a jumpstart to gathering Science points in [[Career]] mode. With 1.2 Kerbin had destinct Northern and Southern Ice Shelf added
 +
 +
[[File:Kerbin biome 1800x900.png|thumb|left|Kerbin biome map as of 1.2]]
 
{|
 
{|
 
|
 
|
[[File:Kerbin ISA Topo.png|right|thumb|Topographical image of Kerbin '''from 0.17.1'''. The terrain is slightly different in the latest version.<ref>http://forum.kerbalspaceprogram.com/entry.php/247-A-Brave-New-World</ref>]]
+
<span id="Planetary biome list"></span>
Kerbin has a roughly equal distribution of surface liquid water and solid land, with polar icecaps and scattered deserts. There are mountains exceeding 4 km in height, with the tallest peak being just under 4044 m in altitude.
+
=== List of biomes ===
 
+
* Ice Caps
Kerbin shows signs of having been impacted by an asteroid or comet. That is visible in the large crater in the western hemisphere. The crater's central peak is visible from orbit and was caused by the compression followed by the rebound of material in the center of the crater.
+
* Northern Ice Shelf
 +
* Southern Ice Shelf
 +
* Tundra
 +
* Highlands
 +
* Mountains
 +
* Grasslands
 +
* Deserts
 +
* Badlands
 +
* Shores
 +
* Water
 +
<span id="Kerbin location biomes"></span>
 +
{{FlipBox|style=word-wrap: normal;margin: 0em 0em 0.5em; border-style: solid solid solid solid; padding: 0px; background-color: #FFFFFF; border-color:#aaaaaa; border-width:1px; width: 24em;
 +
|title=KSC mini biomes
 +
|content=
 +
* [[Inland Kerbal Space Center|Baikerbanur]]
 +
** Baikerbanur LaunchPad
 +
* Island Airfield
 +
* [[Woomerang Launch Site]]
 +
* [[KSC]]
 +
** [[Administration Facility|Administration]]
 +
*** Administration Grounds
 +
** [[Astronaut Complex]]
 +
*** AstronautComplex Grounds
 +
** Crawlerway
 +
** [[Flag Pole|FlagPole]]
 +
** [[Launch Pad|LaunchPad]]
 +
*** LaunchPad Water Tower
 +
*** LaunchPad Platform<small>(only exist when LaunchPad is Level 2)</small>
 +
*** LaunchPad Flag Pole
 +
*** LaunchPad Round Tank
 +
*** LaunchPad Tanks
 +
** [[Mission Control]]
 +
*** MissionControl Grounds
 +
** [[Research and Development|R&D]]
 +
*** R&D Central Building
 +
*** R&D Corner Lab
 +
*** R&D Main Building
 +
*** R&D Observatory
 +
*** R&D Side Lab
 +
*** R&D Small Lab
 +
*** R&D Tanks
 +
*** R&D Wind Tunnel
 +
** [[Runway]]
 +
** [[Spaceplane Hangar|SPH]]
 +
*** SPH Main Building
 +
*** SPH Round Tank
 +
*** SPH Tanks
 +
*** SPH Water Tower
 +
** [[Tracking Station]]
 +
*** Tracking Station Dish East
 +
*** Tracking Station Dish North
 +
*** Tracking Station Dish South
 +
*** Tracking Station Hub
 +
** [[Vehicle Assembly Building|VAB]]
 +
*** VAB Main Building
 +
*** VAB Pod Memorial
 +
*** VAB Round Tank
 +
*** VAB South Complex<small>(only exist when VAB is Level 2)</small>
 +
*** VAB Tanks
 +
}}
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
== Atmosphere ==
 
== Atmosphere ==
 +
[[File:Kerbin_Atmosphere_T&P.png|thumbnail|left|Temperature and pressure of Kerbin's atmosphere as a function of altitude.]]
 +
[[File:Kerbin_atmospheric_density.png|thumbnail|left|Drag force is proportionate to atmospheric density.]]
  
<!-- SPECULATION: Kerbin has an atmosphere of unknown composition, though because Kerbin has plants and animals, it can be assumed there is O<sub>2</sub>, N<sub>2</sub>, and CO<sub>2</sub>. -->Kerbin's [[atmosphere]] contains oxygen and extends to roughly 69,078 meters. Its atmosphere becomes exponentially less dense as altitude increases (with a scale height of 5 km).<ref>{{forum link|threadID=16000|threadName=&#91;KGSS&#93; Examining Kerbin's atmosphere}}</ref> In general, the atmospheric pressure on Kerbin, at an altitude expressed in meters, is:
+
<!-- SPECULATION: Kerbin has an atmosphere of unknown composition, though Kerbin's plants and animals would not survive without O<sub>2</sub>, N<sub>2</sub>, and CO<sub>2</sub>. -->
 +
Kerbin has a thick, warm [[atmosphere]] with a mass of approximately 4.7×10<sup>16</sup> kilograms, a sea level pressure of 101.325 kilopascals (1 atmosphere), and a depth of 70,000 meters.  The atmosphere contains oxygen and can support combustion.  Kerbin is the only planet or moon with a breathable atmosphere.
  
: <math>p_k = e^{-altitude/5000}</math>
+
The average [[w:Molecular_mass|molecular weight]] of Kerbin air is 28.9644&nbsp;g/mol, and its [[w:Heat_capacity_ratio|adiabatic index]] is 1.40.  This suggests that Kerbin likely has an earthlike nitrogen-oxygen atmosphere.  The air-fuel ratio of jet engines operating in Kerbin's atmosphere suggests that the percentage of oxygen is similar to that of [[w:Atmosphere_of_Earth|Earth's atmosphere]] (about 21&nbsp;%).
  
The following table gives approximation of terminal velocities at different Kerbin altitudes. These are also the velocities at which a ship should travel for a fuel-optimal ascent from Kerbin, given the game's model of atmospheric drag (0.18.1).<ref>http://forum.kerbalspaceprogram.com/showthread.php/6664-Mini-challenge-max-altitude-with-this-supplied-spacecraft?p=100912&viewfull=1#post100912</ref>
+
Like all other atmospheres in the game, Kerbin's atmosphere fades exponentially as altitude increases. The [[w:Scale_height|scale height]] varies with altitude, which is a change from pre-1.0 [[Version_history|versions]] of the game.  The pressure-altitude profile is globally constant and independent of temperature.  The following table gives the atmospheric pressure and density at various altitudes above sea level. Temperature-altitude profile is not globally constant, therefore neither is the density-altitude profile, however variance is slight.
  
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
! Altitude (m) !! Velocity (m/s)
+
! Altitude (m) !! Pressure (Pa) !! Pressure (atm) !! Density (kg/m^3)
 
|-
 
|-
|     0 || 97.3
+
| 0 || 101 325 || 1.000 || 1.225
 
|-
 
|-
| 1000 || 110
+
| 2 500 || 69 015 || 0.681 || 0.898
 
|-
 
|-
| 3000 || 130
+
| 5 000 || 45 625 || 0.450 || 0.642
 
|-
 
|-
| 5000 || 160
+
| 7 500 || 29 126 || 0.287 || 0.446
 
|-
 
|-
| 8000 || 215
+
| 10 000 || 17 934 || 0.177 || 0.288
 
|-
 
|-
| 10000 || 260
+
| 15 000 || 6 726 || 0.066 || 0.108
 
|-
 
|-
| 15000 || 425
+
| 20 000 || 2 549 || 0.025 || 0.040
 
|-
 
|-
| 32000 || 2250
+
| 25 000 || 993.6 || 0.010 || 0.015
 +
|-
 +
| 30 000 || 404.1 || 0.004 || 0.006
 +
|-
 +
| 40 000 || 79.77 || 0.001 || 0.001
 +
|-
 +
| 50 000 || 15.56 || 0.000 || 0.000
 +
|-
 +
| 60 000 || 2.387 || 0.000 || 0.000
 +
|-
 +
| 70 000 || 0.000 || 0.000 || 0.000
 
|}
 
|}
  
[[File:Screenshot39.png|thumbnail|A Stayputnick Orbiter]]
+
Kerbin's atmosphere can be divided into three major layers, comparable to Earth's [[w:Troposphere|troposphere]], [[w:Stratosphere|stratosphere]] and [[w:Mesosphere|mesosphere]].  In the lower and upper layers, temperature decreases as altitude increases, while the middle layer spans of a region of increasing temperature.  The boundary between the lower and middle layers occurs at an altitude of about 16&nbsp;km at low latitudes, and about 9&nbsp;km at high latitudes.  The boundary between the middle and upper layer occurs at an altitude of about 38&nbsp;km.
== Orbits ==
+
 
 +
Air temperatures vary with latitude and time of day.  At the equator, sea level temperatures vary between a nighttime low of 32 °C and a daytime high of 41 °C.  At the poles, the temperature varies between -35&nbsp;°C and -30&nbsp;°C.  The globally averaged sea level temperature is approximately 13.5&nbsp;°C. Since Kerbin has no axial tilt, there are no seasonal temperature variations.
 +
 
 +
The atmosphere of Kerbin is patterned after Earth's [[w:U.S._Standard_Atmosphere|U.S. Standard Atmosphere]] (USSA), though with the vertical height scale reduced by 20&nbsp;%.  Kerbin's "base" temperature and atmospheric pressure can be very closely approximated using the [http://www.braeunig.us/space/atmmodel.htm#table4 equations of the USSA], where Kerbin's geometric altitude, z, is converted to Earth's geopotential altitude, h, using the equation:
 +
 
 +
:<math>h = \frac{7963.75\cdot z}{6371+1.25\cdot z}</math>.
 +
 
 +
The base temperature is the temperature less latitudinal and diurnal adjustments; it is roughly equal to the global mean temperature.
 +
 
 +
=== Atmospheric flight ===
 +
The thickness of Kerbin's atmosphere makes it well suited for [[aerobraking]] from a high-speed interplanetary intercept.  The periapsis altitude required for a successful aerocapture depends on the spacecraft's drag characteristics, its approach velocity, and the desired apoapsis of the resulting orbit.  For most conditions, a periapsis altitude of about 30&nbsp;km should result in an aerocapture.
 +
 
 +
[[Parachute]]s perform well in Kerbin's dense air, allowing landings on both land and water to be accomplished without the aid of propulsion.
 +
 
 +
Because of the presence of oxygen, [[jet engine]]s can operate in Kerbin's atmosphere. And, together with it's thickness, Kerbin's atmosphere is ideally suited for [[aircraft]] flight.
  
[[w:Geosynchronous_orbit|Geosynchronous orbit]] is achieved at an altitude of
+
[[File:StationDocking.png|thumbnail|A modified Orbiter 1A prepares to dock with a space station.]]
{{OrbitAltitude | period_s=21600 | mass_kg=5.29157926281091e22 | radius_km=600 }} (1008.9 m/s). A [[w:semi-synchronous_orbit|semi-synchronous orbit]] with an orbital period of 1/2 of Kerbin's rotation period (3 hours or 10800 seconds) is achieved at an altitude of
 
{{OrbitAltitude | period_s=10800 | mass_kg=5.29157926281091e22 | radius_km=600 }} with an orbital velocity of
 
{{OrbitVelocity | period_s=10800 | mass_kg=5.29157926281091e22 | radius_km=600 }}.
 
  
== Interplanetary Travel ==
+
== Orbits ==
 +
[[File:Sputnik in Kerbin's orbit.png|thumbnail|left|A Sputnik-derived satellite]]
  
From the lowest stable orbit around Kerbin (70 km), the amount of delta-V needed to reach the orbits of other celestials is as follows:
+
A [[synchronous orbit]] is achieved with a semi-major axis of {{OrbitAltitude|b=Kerbin|f=k|3=0}}. [[KEO|Kerbisynchronous Equatorial Orbit (KEO)]] has a circularly uniform altitude of {{OrbitAltitude|b=Kerbin|f=k}} and a speed of {{OrbitVelocity|b=Kerbin}}. From a 70&nbsp;km low equatorial orbit, the periapsis maneuver requires 676.5&nbsp;m/s and the apoapsis maneuver requires 434.9&nbsp;m/s. A synchronous [[w:Tundra orbit|Tundra orbit]] with eccentricity of 0.2864 and inclination of 63 degrees is achieved at 3799.7/1937.7&nbsp;km. Inclination correlates with eccentricity: higher inclined orbits need to be more eccentric, while equatorial orbit may be circular, essentially KEO.
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
A [[w:semi-synchronous orbit|semi-synchronous orbit]] with an orbital period of ½ of Kerbin's rotation period (2&nbsp;h&nbsp;59&nbsp;m&nbsp34.7&nbsp;s or 10774.7&nbsp; seconds) is achieved at an altitude of {{OrbitAltitude|b=Kerbin|f=k|pf=1/2}} with an orbital velocity of {{OrbitVelocity|b=Kerbin|pf=1/2}}. A semi-synchronous [[w:Molniya orbit|Molniya orbit]] with eccentricity of 0.742<ref>“[http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/AstronNotes/Orbits0.HTM Some Major Orbit Types]” uses that, [[w:Molniya orbit#References|the Wikipedia article]] mentions 0.74105, and “[http://www.eumetcal.org/euromet/english/satmet/s3220/s3220332.htm Orbital Parameters of a Molniya Orbit]” uses 0.72.</ref> and inclination of 63 degrees can not be achieved, because the periapsis would be 36&nbsp;km below the ground. The highest eccentricity of a semi-synchronous orbit with a periapsis of 70&nbsp;km is 0.693<!---389102957193457747187874683092468355009655955115825698569= (1585.18 + 600-670)/(1585.18 + 600)--> with an apoapsis of 3100.36<!-- (1585.18+600)*2-670-600 -->&nbsp;km.
  
!Body
+
The [[w:Hill sphere|Hill sphere]] (the radius around the planet at which moons are gravitationally stable) of Kerbin is 136 185&nbsp;km, or roughly 227 Kerbin radii.
!colspan="2"|Delta-V
 
|-
 
| [[Mün]]
 
|colspan="2"| ~860 m/s
 
|-
 
| [[Minmus]]
 
|colspan="2"| ~930 m/s
 
|-
 
| [[Eve]]
 
|colspan="2"| ~1033 m/s
 
|-
 
| [[Duna]]
 
|colspan="2"| ~1060 m/s
 
|-
 
| [[Moho]]
 
|colspan="2"| ~1676 m/s
 
|-
 
| [[Jool]]
 
|colspan="2"| ~1915 m/s
 
|-
 
  
| [[Eeloo]]
+
== Delta-V Requirements ==
|colspan="2"| ~2100 m/s
+
From the lowest possible stable orbit around Kerbin (70&nbsp;km), the nominal amount of delta-V needed to reach other destinations is:
|-
 
|}
 
  
== Reference Frames ==
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
!
 
! Paid ({{version|0.17|}})
 
! Demo ({{version|0.13.3|}})
 
 
|-
 
|-
!Rotational/Inertial transition
+
! Body !! Δv
| 100,000 m
 
| 70,000 m
 
 
|-
 
|-
!Warp
+
| [[Mun]] || ~860&nbsp;m/s
!colspan="2"|Minimum Altitude
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 1x
+
| [[Minmus]] || ~930&nbsp;m/s
|colspan="2"| Any
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 2x
+
| [[Eve]] || ~1033&nbsp;m/s
| n/a
 
| 0 m
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 5x
+
| [[Duna]] || ~1060&nbsp;m/s
|colspan="2"| 69,078 m (above the atmosphere)
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 10x
+
| [[KEO|Geostationary Orbit]] || ~1120&nbsp;m/s
|colspan="2"| 69,078 m (above the atmosphere)
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 50x
+
| [[Moho]] || ~1676&nbsp;m/s
| 69,078 m
 
| 150,000 m
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 100x
+
| [[Jool]] || ~1915&nbsp;m/s
| 120,000 m
 
| 300,000 m
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 1,000x
+
| [[Eeloo]] || ~2100&nbsp;m/s
| 240,000 m
 
| 600,000 m
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 10,000x
+
| [[Kerbol]] escape || ~2740&nbsp;m/s
| 480,000 m
 
| 1,200,000 m
 
|-
 
| 100,000x
 
| 600,000 m
 
| n/a
 
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
== Reference frames ==
 +
{{:Kerbin/RefFrame}}
  
 
== Gallery ==
 
== Gallery ==
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
NJ6qJ.jpg                 | A projection map of Kerbin, as of {{version|0.14.1|}} and before (including the demo).
+
Kerbin ISA Topo 0 21.jpg |Topographical map of Kerbin as of {{version|0.21}}
Kerbin color.png           | An accurate full-colour projection map of Kerbin as of {{version|0.14.2|}} to {{version|0.17.1|}}
+
Kerbin map from 0.14.jpg | A projection map of Kerbin, as of [[0.14.1]] and before (including the old demo).
KerbinDeltaVMap.png       | A map displaying the delta V needed from/to Kerbin
+
Kerbin color.png | An accurate full-colour projection map of Kerbin as of [[0.14.2]] to [[0.17.1]]
 +
KerbinDeltaVMap.png | A map displaying the delta V needed from/to Kerbin
 +
Kerbin_mun_minmus.jpg | Kerbin, Mun and Minmus.
 +
Kerbin,_Mun,_and_Minmus.jpeg | Kerbin with its two natural satellites, the Mun and Minmus, seen from KEO. Minmus can be seen just above the horizon of Kerbin on the left side of the picture.
 +
kerbin map 800.gif | A topographic heightmap of Kerbin made with the ISA MapSat plugin
 +
Kerbinmun500550km.png | Kerbin and the Mun, barely visible from ~500,550,000&nbsp;m
 +
Kerbin ISA Topo.png | Topographical image of Kerbin '''from 0.17.1'''. The terrain is slightly different in the latest version.<ref>http://forum.kerbalspaceprogram.com/entry.php/247-A-Brave-New-World</ref>
 +
Kerbin r0 1.png | An unmanned probe on escape trajectory, flying past Kerbin, Mun and Minmus
 +
KerbalPolar1.png | Kerbin's North Pole
 +
Screenshot255.png | Kerbin's South Pole
 +
Solar eclipse in LKO.jpg | A solar eclipse from low Kerbin orbit (LKO).
 +
File:Entire kerbin system.jpg | Kerbin and Minmus seen from the surface of the Mun.
 +
File:KSPKerbalSystem.PNG | Kerbin, Mun, and Minmus in a line, seen from a Minmus landing craft.
 +
</gallery>
 +
 
 +
{{SpoilerBox
 +
|description=Easter Eggs Are Shown
 +
|content=
 +
<gallery>
 
Kermmunist_Launch_Site.png | The second launch site (currently unused).
 
Kermmunist_Launch_Site.png | The second launch site (currently unused).
Kerbin_mun_minmus.jpg      | Kerbin, Mün and Minmus.
+
KEasterEgg.png | Kerbin from above with the Runway Easter Egg
kerbin map 800.gif        | A topographic heightmap of Kerbin made with the ISA MapSat plugin
+
 
Kerbinmun500550km.png     | Kerbin and the Mun, barely visible from ~500,550,000m
+
<!--Old Monolith.jpeg doesn't exist; add screenshot of monolith from version 0.13 or older-->
</gallery>
+
 
 +
File:Crashed Polar UFO.png | A Crashed UFO on Kerbin's northern ice cap.
 +
</gallery>}}
  
 
== Changes ==
 
== Changes ==
;{{Version|0.18|}}
+
;[[1.2]]
*Terrain overhaul: Entire planet redo. Deserts, darker and greener grass, islands, darker ocean/water, snow capped mountains. Looks more realistic.
+
* Added biomes.
*Several [[List of easter eggs|Easter Eggs]] added.
+
;[[1.0.5]]
*Airport added to island off of KSC coastline. (Not a launching point)
+
* Kerbin actually spun up to have a 6&nbsp;h synodic day.
;{{Version|0.17|}}
+
;[[0.90]]
 +
* Updated biomes.
 +
;[[0.22]]
 +
* Biomes added.
 +
;[[0.21]]
 +
* Terrain revised to produce more detailed and interesting landforms.
 +
;[[0.19.1]]
 +
* Fixed ladders on the fuel tanks near the launchpad.
 +
;[[0.19]]
 +
* New mesh for the launchpad and area (no launchtower anymore).
 +
* New mesh for the runway, with lights and sloping edges for rovers.
 +
;[[0.18]]
 +
* Terrain overhaul: Entire planet redo. Deserts, darker and greener grass, islands, darker ocean/water, snow capped mountains. Looks more realistic.
 +
* Several [[List of easter eggs|Easter Eggs]] added.
 +
* Airport added to island off of KSC coastline. (Not a launching point)
 +
;[[0.17]]
 
* Improved atmosphere visuals.   
 
* Improved atmosphere visuals.   
;{{Version|0.15|}}
+
;[[0.15]]
 
* [[Minmus]] added.
 
* [[Minmus]] added.
;{{Version|0.14.2|}}
+
;[[0.14.2]]
* Much more varied and taller terrain added. Prior to this, some mountain ranges exceeded 600 m in height, but the tallest point was at an altitude of approximately 900 m.
+
* Much more varied and taller terrain added. Prior to this, some mountain ranges exceeded 600&nbsp;m in height, but the tallest point was at an altitude of approximately 900&nbsp;m.
;{{Version|0.12|}}
+
;[[0.12]]
* [[Mün]] added.
+
* [[Mun]] added.
;{{Version|0.11|}}
+
;[[0.11]]
 
* Terrain overhaul, oceans became wet.
 
* Terrain overhaul, oceans became wet.
;{{Version|0.10.1|}}
+
;[[0.10.1]]
* Atmosphere extended from ~34,500 m to ~69,000 m.
+
* Atmosphere extended from ~34,500&nbsp;m to ~69,000&nbsp;m.
;{{Version|?|}}
+
;[[0.7.3]]
 
* Initial Release
 
* Initial Release
 +
 +
== Trivia ==
 +
Kerbin's continents are derived from libnoise<ref>http://libnoise.sourceforge.net/examples/complexplanet/</ref>, a coherent noise generating library, though they have been increasingly modified with time.
 +
 +
=== Real-world comparison ===
 +
Kerbin has approximately 1/113<sup>th</sup> the mass and a 1/10<sup>th</sup> the radius of Earth.
  
 
== Notes ==
 
== Notes ==
 
<references />
 
<references />
 
  
 
{{Celestial Bodies}}
 
{{Celestial Bodies}}
 
 
[[Category:Celestials]]
 
[[Category:Celestials]]
 
[[Category:Planets]]
 
[[Category:Planets]]

Revision as of 21:26, 11 August 2019

Kerbin
Kerbin
Kerbin as seen from orbit.
Planet of Kerbol
Orbital Characteristics
Semi-major axis 13 599 840 256 m [Note 1]
Apoapsis 13 599 840 256 m [Note 1]
Periapsis 13 599 840 256 m [Note 1]
Orbital eccentricity 0
Orbital inclination 0 °
Argument of periapsis 0 °
Longitude of the ascending node 0 °
Mean anomaly 3.14 rad (at 0s UT)
Sidereal orbital period 9 203 545 s
426 d 0 h 32 m 24.6 s
Synodic orbital period Not defined
Orbital velocity 9 285 m/s
Physical Characteristics
Equatorial radius 600 000 m
Equatorial circumference 3 769 911 m
Surface area 4.5238934×1012 m2
Mass 5.2915158×1022 kg
Standard gravitational parameter 3.5316000×1012 m3/s2
Density 58 484.090 kg/m3
Surface gravity 9.81 m/s2 (1 g)
Escape velocity 3 431.03 m/s
Sidereal rotation period 21 549.425 s
5 h 59 m 9.4 s
Solar day 21 600.000 s
5 h 59 m 60 s
Sidereal rotational velocity 174.94 m/s
Synchronous orbit 2 863.33 km
Sphere of influence 84 159 286 m [Note 1]
Atmospheric Characteristics
Atmosphere present ✓ Yes
Atmospheric pressure 101.325 kPa
1 atm
Atmospheric height 70 000 m
1.0×10-6 atm
Temperaturemin -86.20 °C 186.95 K
Temperaturemax 15 °C 288.15 K
Oxygen present ✓ Yes
Scientific multiplier
Surface 0.3
Splashed 0.4
Lower atmosphere 0.7
Upper atmosphere 0.9
Near space 1
Outer space 1.5
Recovery 1

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 The distances are given from the bodies center, not from the surface (unlike ingame)

Kerbin is the home planet of the Kerbals, the location of the Space Center, and the main focus of Kerbal Space Program. It is also the Earth analog for the game and has two moons named Mun and Minmus.

Kerbin is the third planet in orbit around the star Kerbol. It is the third largest celestial body that orbits Kerbol, following Jool and Eve. Jool's moon Tylo has the same radius of Kerbin, though it may be classified as larger, as the highest point on Tylo is about 5 km higher than the highest point on Kerbin. However, Tylo has only 80 % of Kerbin's mass.

Reaching a stable orbit around Kerbin is one of the first milestones a player might achieve in the game. With the introduction of version 1.0.3, attaining low Kerbin orbit requires a Δv of approximately 3400 m/s (vacuum), though the exact amount depends on the efficiency of the ascent profile and the aerodynamics of the launch vehicle and payload. The only planet that requires a higher Δv to attain orbit is Eve. Many interplanetary missions expend over half of their Δv in reaching Kerbin orbit. The velocity required to escape a body from a given altitude is always exactly the square root of two times the velocity of a circular orbit around the body at that height, leading one observer to remark:

If you can get your ship into orbit, you're halfway to anywhere.

Robert Heinlein , quoted on page 194 of A Step Farther Out by Jerry Pournelle

In-game description

A unique world, Kerbin has flat plains, soaring mountains and wide, blue oceans. Home to the Kerbals, it has just the right conditions to support a vast, seemingly undepletable population of the eager green creatures.


Reaching a stable orbit around Kerbin is one of the first things budding space programs strive for. It is said that those who can get their ship into orbit are halfway to anywhere.''

Kerbal Astronomical Society

Topography

Topographical representation of Kerbin's surface as of 0.18.2. Click for high resolution. by Zeroignite
Kerbal at Kerbin's highest peak

Kerbin has a roughly equal distribution of liquid surface water and solid land, with polar ice caps and scattered deserts. Some of its mountains exceed 6 km in height, with the tallest peak being 6764.1 m in altitude at the coordinates 46°20'17" E 61°35'53" N. The lowest point is almost 1.4 km deep and about 313° south-west of the Kerbal Space Center.

Craters

Terrain model centered on Kerbin's most pronounced craters

Unlike other bodies in its system, Kerbin has few visible craters because its environment would erode craters from the few meteors that avoid the gravity or surface of its large moon and survive entry. Nevertheless, some geological formations indicate that bodies have violently collided with Kerbin: a planetary feature appears to be an impact crater, while a secondary rupture lies on the other side of the planet (made by the intense longitudinal, or P-wave earthquakes that ensue.) Both are in excess of 100 km diameter, and the main crater lies along the far-western coastline. The uplift is easily visible as a series of islands, and the feature has a central peak that pokes up through the water (also known as a rebound peak.) The other, and smaller of the two, is near the prime meridian in the northern hemisphere and is more easily missed, but its uplift rims are visible, and it also has a central rebound peak.

Biomes

The biomes on Kerbin as of 0.90

Before 0.90 Kerbin was one of the few bodies with multiple Biomes, Kerbin was second only to the Mun in number of biomes it has. Following the 0.90 update all celestial bodies have biomes. Science experiments can be performed at all biomes, though Kerbin's low multipliers result in less impressive results than more distant worlds. Kerbin's biomes show a loose correlation with Earth's biomes and geographic features. Uniquely, Kerbin has 33 location biomes at KSC, these are comprised of each building and their props, the crawlerway, the flag, and KSC itself; these give a jumpstart to gathering Science points in Career mode. With 1.2 Kerbin had destinct Northern and Southern Ice Shelf added

Kerbin biome map as of 1.2

List of biomes

  • Ice Caps
  • Northern Ice Shelf
  • Southern Ice Shelf
  • Tundra
  • Highlands
  • Mountains
  • Grasslands
  • Deserts
  • Badlands
  • Shores
  • Water

KSC mini biomes
  • Baikerbanur
    • Baikerbanur LaunchPad
  • Island Airfield
  • Woomerang Launch Site
  • KSC
    • Administration
      • Administration Grounds
    • Astronaut Complex
      • AstronautComplex Grounds
    • Crawlerway
    • FlagPole
    • LaunchPad
      • LaunchPad Water Tower
      • LaunchPad Platform(only exist when LaunchPad is Level 2)
      • LaunchPad Flag Pole
      • LaunchPad Round Tank
      • LaunchPad Tanks
    • Mission Control
      • MissionControl Grounds
    • R&D
      • R&D Central Building
      • R&D Corner Lab
      • R&D Main Building
      • R&D Observatory
      • R&D Side Lab
      • R&D Small Lab
      • R&D Tanks
      • R&D Wind Tunnel
    • Runway
    • SPH
      • SPH Main Building
      • SPH Round Tank
      • SPH Tanks
      • SPH Water Tower
    • Tracking Station
      • Tracking Station Dish East
      • Tracking Station Dish North
      • Tracking Station Dish South
      • Tracking Station Hub
    • VAB
      • VAB Main Building
      • VAB Pod Memorial
      • VAB Round Tank
      • VAB South Complex(only exist when VAB is Level 2)
      • VAB Tanks

Atmosphere

Temperature and pressure of Kerbin's atmosphere as a function of altitude.
Drag force is proportionate to atmospheric density.

Kerbin has a thick, warm atmosphere with a mass of approximately 4.7×1016 kilograms, a sea level pressure of 101.325 kilopascals (1 atmosphere), and a depth of 70,000 meters. The atmosphere contains oxygen and can support combustion. Kerbin is the only planet or moon with a breathable atmosphere.

The average molecular weight of Kerbin air is 28.9644 g/mol, and its adiabatic index is 1.40. This suggests that Kerbin likely has an earthlike nitrogen-oxygen atmosphere. The air-fuel ratio of jet engines operating in Kerbin's atmosphere suggests that the percentage of oxygen is similar to that of Earth's atmosphere (about 21 %).

Like all other atmospheres in the game, Kerbin's atmosphere fades exponentially as altitude increases. The scale height varies with altitude, which is a change from pre-1.0 versions of the game. The pressure-altitude profile is globally constant and independent of temperature. The following table gives the atmospheric pressure and density at various altitudes above sea level. Temperature-altitude profile is not globally constant, therefore neither is the density-altitude profile, however variance is slight.

Altitude (m) Pressure (Pa) Pressure (atm) Density (kg/m^3)
0 101 325 1.000 1.225
2 500 69 015 0.681 0.898
5 000 45 625 0.450 0.642
7 500 29 126 0.287 0.446
10 000 17 934 0.177 0.288
15 000 6 726 0.066 0.108
20 000 2 549 0.025 0.040
25 000 993.6 0.010 0.015
30 000 404.1 0.004 0.006
40 000 79.77 0.001 0.001
50 000 15.56 0.000 0.000
60 000 2.387 0.000 0.000
70 000 0.000 0.000 0.000

Kerbin's atmosphere can be divided into three major layers, comparable to Earth's troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere. In the lower and upper layers, temperature decreases as altitude increases, while the middle layer spans of a region of increasing temperature. The boundary between the lower and middle layers occurs at an altitude of about 16 km at low latitudes, and about 9 km at high latitudes. The boundary between the middle and upper layer occurs at an altitude of about 38 km.

Air temperatures vary with latitude and time of day. At the equator, sea level temperatures vary between a nighttime low of 32 °C and a daytime high of 41 °C. At the poles, the temperature varies between -35 °C and -30 °C. The globally averaged sea level temperature is approximately 13.5 °C. Since Kerbin has no axial tilt, there are no seasonal temperature variations.

The atmosphere of Kerbin is patterned after Earth's U.S. Standard Atmosphere (USSA), though with the vertical height scale reduced by 20 %. Kerbin's "base" temperature and atmospheric pressure can be very closely approximated using the equations of the USSA, where Kerbin's geometric altitude, z, is converted to Earth's geopotential altitude, h, using the equation:

.

The base temperature is the temperature less latitudinal and diurnal adjustments; it is roughly equal to the global mean temperature.

Atmospheric flight

The thickness of Kerbin's atmosphere makes it well suited for aerobraking from a high-speed interplanetary intercept. The periapsis altitude required for a successful aerocapture depends on the spacecraft's drag characteristics, its approach velocity, and the desired apoapsis of the resulting orbit. For most conditions, a periapsis altitude of about 30 km should result in an aerocapture.

Parachutes perform well in Kerbin's dense air, allowing landings on both land and water to be accomplished without the aid of propulsion.

Because of the presence of oxygen, jet engines can operate in Kerbin's atmosphere. And, together with it's thickness, Kerbin's atmosphere is ideally suited for aircraft flight.

A modified Orbiter 1A prepares to dock with a space station.

Orbits

A Sputnik-derived satellite

A synchronous orbit is achieved with a semi-major axis of 3 463.33 km. Kerbisynchronous Equatorial Orbit (KEO) has a circularly uniform altitude of 2 863.33 km and a speed of 1 009.81 m/s. From a 70 km low equatorial orbit, the periapsis maneuver requires 676.5 m/s and the apoapsis maneuver requires 434.9 m/s. A synchronous Tundra orbit with eccentricity of 0.2864 and inclination of 63 degrees is achieved at 3799.7/1937.7 km. Inclination correlates with eccentricity: higher inclined orbits need to be more eccentric, while equatorial orbit may be circular, essentially KEO.

A semi-synchronous orbit with an orbital period of ½ of Kerbin's rotation period (2 h 59 m&nbsp34.7 s or 10774.7  seconds) is achieved at an altitude of 1 581.76 km with an orbital velocity of 1 272.28 m/s. A semi-synchronous Molniya orbit with eccentricity of 0.742[1] and inclination of 63 degrees can not be achieved, because the periapsis would be 36 km below the ground. The highest eccentricity of a semi-synchronous orbit with a periapsis of 70 km is 0.693 with an apoapsis of 3100.36 km.

The Hill sphere (the radius around the planet at which moons are gravitationally stable) of Kerbin is 136 185 km, or roughly 227 Kerbin radii.

Delta-V Requirements

From the lowest possible stable orbit around Kerbin (70 km), the nominal amount of delta-V needed to reach other destinations is:

Body Δv
Mun ~860 m/s
Minmus ~930 m/s
Eve ~1033 m/s
Duna ~1060 m/s
Geostationary Orbit ~1120 m/s
Moho ~1676 m/s
Jool ~1915 m/s
Eeloo ~2100 m/s
Kerbol escape ~2740 m/s

Reference frames

Time warp Minimum Altitude
Any
5× 70 000 m (above the atmosphere)
10× 70 000 m (above the atmosphere)
50× 70 000 m (above the atmosphere)
100× 120 000 m
1 000× 240 000 m
10 000× 480 000 m
100 000× 600 000 m


Gallery

Spoiler: Easter Eggs Are Shown

Changes

1.2
  • Added biomes.
1.0.5
  • Kerbin actually spun up to have a 6 h synodic day.
0.90
  • Updated biomes.
0.22
  • Biomes added.
0.21
  • Terrain revised to produce more detailed and interesting landforms.
0.19.1
  • Fixed ladders on the fuel tanks near the launchpad.
0.19
  • New mesh for the launchpad and area (no launchtower anymore).
  • New mesh for the runway, with lights and sloping edges for rovers.
0.18
  • Terrain overhaul: Entire planet redo. Deserts, darker and greener grass, islands, darker ocean/water, snow capped mountains. Looks more realistic.
  • Several Easter Eggs added.
  • Airport added to island off of KSC coastline. (Not a launching point)
0.17
  • Improved atmosphere visuals.
0.15
0.14.2
  • Much more varied and taller terrain added. Prior to this, some mountain ranges exceeded 600 m in height, but the tallest point was at an altitude of approximately 900 m.
0.12
0.11
  • Terrain overhaul, oceans became wet.
0.10.1
  • Atmosphere extended from ~34,500 m to ~69,000 m.
0.7.3
  • Initial Release

Trivia

Kerbin's continents are derived from libnoise[3], a coherent noise generating library, though they have been increasingly modified with time.

Real-world comparison

Kerbin has approximately 1/113th the mass and a 1/10th the radius of Earth.

Notes

  1. Some Major Orbit Types” uses that, the Wikipedia article mentions 0.74105, and “Orbital Parameters of a Molniya Orbit” uses 0.72.
  2. http://forum.kerbalspaceprogram.com/entry.php/247-A-Brave-New-World
  3. http://libnoise.sourceforge.net/examples/complexplanet/