Launch vehicle/ru

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Ракета-носитель (англ. "launch vehicle") - это первоначально работающая часть ракеты (или любого другого средства выведения), которое поднимает летательный аппарат от Стартового Стола и выводит его на низкую орбиту (или близко к этому состоянию). To ensure this amount of thrust usually ракетных двигателей are applied (although воздушно-реактивных двигателей can be used too, but these are not able to achieve stable orbit alone), enhanced with liquid or твердотопливный ускоритель placed on decouplers, in case of liquid fuel boosters, asparagus staging gives a further enhancement. If we interpret the therm widely, an SSTO spaceplane capable to carry payloads is a launch vehicle too.

The power and the efficiency of a launch vehicle is measured in mass of the payload can be transferred to low orbit, and the ratio of this mass and the whole starting mass. In case of Kerbin, a launch vehicle with proper construction needs 4200-4700 m/s Δv to reach the stable orbit, and the payload ratio is about 15-20%. In the real world, 1% payload ratio is quite acceptable.

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Launch vehicle on Wikipedia