Difference between revisions of "Laythe"

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'''Laythe''' is the innermost of the five [[w:Natural satellite|natural satellites]] of [[Jool]]. Although mostly covered in seas, Laythe has numerous rocky, sandy islands. Laythe is tidally locked to Jool.  Synchronous orbits around Laythe are not possible, as they would lie outside of its SOI, at a radius of 5,186,399 meters. A circular [[w:archipelago|archipelago]] prominent in surface maps of the moon suggests that Laythe suffered a massive impact in its distant past.
Achieving a stable orbit around Laythe from sea level requires a [[delta-V]] of ≈2800 m/s.
Laythe has no real-world analogue. In the real-world [[w:Jupiter|Jupiter system]], the moons [[w:Ganymede (moon)|Ganymede]], [[w:Europa (moon)|Europa]] and [[w:Io (moon)|Io]] form a group with an [[w:Orbital Resonance|orbital resonance]] just like KSP's [[Tylo]], [[Vall]] and Laythe. But while Tylo and Vall have a certain resemblance to their real-life counterparts, Laythe is very unlike Io, which is dry, volcanic, and only has a tenuous atmosphere. Instead, the presence of a liquid ocean - plus a dense atmosphere - makes Laythe more similar to the [[w:Saturn|Saturnian]] moon, [[w:Titan (moon)|Titan]]. Laythe also seems very similar to what happened to Europa in [[w:2010: Odyssey Two|2010: Odyssey Two]].
Although Laythe has liquid water on its surface, its polar regions have temperatures below zero degrees Celsius even outside its ice caps. This means Laythe's oceans must contain another compound which reduces its freezing point, most likely ionic, such as salt. Surface samples indicate that much salt is present on Laythe's surface. Unlike that of [[Kerbin]], the air cannot be breathed by [[Kerbal]]s (according to EVA reports). It is therefore possible that there are also high concentrations of salt in the air, as well as on the surface, assuming that the salt is sodium chloride. The apparent toxicity of Laythe's atmosphere, despite being similar in composition to Kerbin's, may also be a reference to the film [[w:Avatar (2009 film)|Avatar]] - the moon Pandora is very similar to Earth, but its atmosphere is too toxic for humans to inhale, and the moon also orbits a gas giant, like Laythe.  Laythe may also be a reference to the planet Damogran from the radio/tv/book/movie series The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, as they are almost, but not quite, entirely not unlike one another.
According to former developer NovaSilisko, Laythe was planned to have volcanic activity and high radiation levels in later versions, making it a much more hostile moon than in 1.0.5.<ref>[http://forum.kerbalspaceprogram.com/showthread.php/28451-Could-Laythe-actually-exist-with-real-physics?p=349683&viewfull=1#post349683 Forumpost from NovaSilisko]</ref><ref>[http://forum.kerbalspaceprogram.com/threads/29807-Planet-Ideas-And-Names-For-The-Future-Of-Kerbal-Space-Program?p=447959&viewfull=1#post447959 Post from NovaSilisko]</ref>
== In-game description ==
|When Laythe was first discovered, it was not entered in the records because the scientist in charge thought he was looking at Kerbin. <br><br> Luckily this error was corrected when a plucky intern informed him that telescopes don’t work that way. <br><br> The intern was shortly afterwards promoted and moved to the experimental rocket testing program.
|[[Kerbal Astronomical Society]]}}
== Biomes ==
Laythe has 10 [[biome]]s. Laythe consists primarily of a huge ocean, called The Sagen Sea, with another ocean called the DeGrasse Sea and some small Peaks, Dunes and Shores biomes. It also has a Poles biome. The aforementioned seas are likely to be named after Neil DeGrasse Tyson and Carl Sagan, two famous physicists.
=== Biome list ===
{{Biome list|
* Poles
* Shores
* Dunes
* Crescent Bay
* The Sagen Sea
* Crater Island
* Shallows
* Crater Bay
* DeGrasse Sea
* Peaks}}
== Atmosphere ==
[[File:Laythe_Atmosphere_T&P.png|thumbnail|left|Temperature and pressure of Laythe's atmosphere as a function of altitude.]]
Laythe has an [[atmosphere]] thick enough and warm enough to support liquid water on its surface.  The atmosphere has a mass of approximately 2.4×10<sup>16</sup> kilograms, a sea level pressure of 60.795 kilopascals (0.6 atmospheres), and a depth of 50,000 meters.  Compared to the atmosphere of [[Kerbin]], Laythe's atmosphere has 1/2 the mass and 3/5<sup>ths</sup> the surface pressure. The sea level pressure on Laythe is equivalent to that at an altitude of 3,287 m on Kerbin.  The atmosphere contains oxygen and can support combustion; however, it is unbreathable by Kerbals. Laythe is the only moon in the game that has an atmosphere.
The average [[w:Molecular_mass|molecular weight]] of Laythe air is 28.9644 g/mol, and its [[w:Heat_capacity_ratio|adiabatic index]] is 1.40.  These values suggest a compostion very similar to Kerbin, and to [[w:Atmosphere_of_Earth|Earth]] — likely nitrogen and oxygen.
Like all other atmospheres in the game, Laythe's atmosphere fades exponentially as altitude increases.  The [[w:Scale_height|scale height]] varies with altitude, which is a change from pre-1.0 [[Version_history|versions]] of the game.  The pressure-altitude profile is globally constant and independent of temperature.  The following table gives the atmospheric pressure at various altitudes above sea level.
{| class="wikitable"
! Altitude (m) !! Pressure (Pa) !! Pressure (atm)
| 0 || 60 795 || 0.600
| 2 500 || 47 153 || 0.465
| 5 000 || 34 495 || 0.340
| 7 500 || 24 914 || 0.246
| 10 000 || 17 786 || 0.176
| 15 000 || 9 351 || 0.092
| 20 000 || 4 782 || 0.047
| 25 000 || 2 671 || 0.026
| 30 000 || 1 507 || 0.015
| 40 000 || 363.5 || 0.004
| 50 000 || 0 || 0.000
The variation of temperature with height suggests the presence of an earthlike [[w:Troposphere|troposphere]], [[w:Stratosphere|stratosphere]] and [[w:Mesosphere|mesosphere]]. The warm surface temperatures rapidly decrease as the alitude increases to 5 km.  The stratospheric region, where temperature rises as altitude increases, spans the region between the altitudes of 10 km and 22 km.
Air temperatures vary with latitude and time of day.  At the equator, sea level temperatures vary between a nighttime low of 9 °C and a daytime high of 15 °C.  Mid-latitudes are only slightly cooler than the equatorial zone — at latitudes below 63°, the sea level temperature never drops below 0 °C.  At the poles, the temperature varies between -26 °C and -24 °C.  The globally averaged sea level temperature is approximately 9 °C.  Since Laythe has no axial tilt, there are no seasonal temperature variations.
Laythe's surface temperatures are warmer than would be expected based on its distance from the sun.  This suggests the possibility that Laythe generates its own heat, likely [[w:Tidal_heating|tidal heating]].
=== Atmospheric flight ===
The thickness of Laythe's atmosphere makes it suitable for [[aerobraking]] and the use of [[parachute]]s. 
With proper aerobraking near Laythe and Jool, reaching Laythe may require the least Δv of all of Jool's moons.  Another way is to approach Laythe directly, utilizing proper timing and making orbital adjustments on the way to Jool.  Laythe's orbital period makes it an easy target to time and will have required less Δv on arrival (only 2000 m/s). As such, aerobraking on Laythe is less extreme than on Jool.
Landing on higher points of Laythe's surface has to be done with the help of retro-burns, as parachutes alone will not suffice to sufficiently lower a craft's velocity for landing.
[[Jet engine]]s work in Laythe's atmosphere due to the presence of oxygen. However, the air-intake efficiency is lower there.
As previously mentioned, Laythe's atmosphere contains [[w:Oxygen|oxygen]] enabling jet engines to function. Even though there is a lower concentration of oxygen than on Kerbin, plus an unknown toxic trace gas, most likely ozone, this oxygen almost surely has to be generated somewhere on Laythe. Molecular oxygen is extremely unstable compared to other atmospheric gases, and is even capable of reacting with itself to form ozone under certain conditions. Because of this unstable molecular oxygen must constantly be replaced for it to remain in any meaningful quantity in an atmosphere. This fact, combined with Laythe's extremely high concentration of liquid water, make it tempting to declare the presence of life on the moon. While it is possible that this is the case, it is also possible that the moon has a self-sustaining chemical process that constantly replenishes its oxygen reserves.
== Science ==
Laythe is the most [[science]]-rich body in the Joolian moon system. Even though [[Tylo]] has a slightly higher science multiplier for both surface and orbit, Laythe's atmosphere and oceans allow a lot more experiments to be performed, which means the total science output is higher.
== Reference frames ==
== Gallery ==
Mechjeb Laythe.png        | A large user-created probe in low orbit around Laythe.
ProbeonLaythe.png          | A probe on the surface of Laythe.
Laythe Topo compressed.png | A topographic map of Laythe made with ISA MapSat.
Laythe bump gray.jpg      | A grayscale bump map normalized at sea level.
File:KSP.EXE 0x69D82224.png| A color map of Laythe
VallFromLaythe.png        | Vall as seen on Laythe
TyloFromLaythe.png        | Tylo as seen on Laythe
BopFromLaythe.png          | Bop as seen on Laythe
Laythetransen.svg          | Laythe transfer plan
Laythe_map_800.gif        | A topographic height map of Laythe as at Version 0.18.2 made with the ISA MapSat plugin
Laythe_Ice_Cap.png        | Laythe's northern ice cap, with the Sun, Vall, and Tylo.
Jet_on_Laythe.png          | User-created jet flying in Laythe's atmosphere.
TogsSpaceplace1.jpg        | User-created jet space plane on re-entry to Laythe.
Direct_Laythe_approach.jpg | A direct approach to Laythe.
Laythe Base grautbakken.jpg | A modular, mobile base being set up at Laythe
== Changes ==
* Added biomes
*Atmosphere reduced
* Added biomes
* Initial Release
== Notes ==
<references />
{{Celestial Bodies}}

Revision as of 18:20, 17 March 2017