Ступень (англ. "stage") - это подсистема летательного аппарата, которая активируется индивидуально. Ступень может состоять из одной или нескольких деталей космического корабля. После активации ступени, все детали активируются одновременно. Двигатели - включаются, парашюты - раскрываются, разделители - взрываются. При сборке космического корабля, важно располагать детали в правильных ступенях. Двигатель или разделитель активированные не во время, наиболее вероятно, приведут к катастрофической ошибке. Ступени активируются друг за другом, от наименьшего номера ступени - к наибольшему номеру ступени - до конца или до 'посадочной' ступени - 0.
The game can automatically set up the stages of a craft, based on the assumption that decouplers serve to separate stages once they are out of fuel or otherwise outlived their usefulness. Whenever a new set of decouplers is placed on a craft, a new stage is created, containing all parts attached to the decoupler. This logic doesn't work for all vessel designs, so it may be necessary to manually reorder parts to the correct stages. This happens by rearranging the icons in the staging process list on the right of the screen in the VAB. Here you can create or delete any number of stages with no restrictions other than that a single stage must remain.
It is also possible reorder parts to different stages on the launch pad or mid flight. However, the staging should mostly be done in the VAB, where there is no pressure of time and it can be saved with the craft.
- Also see controls for manually setting up staging in the VAB/SPH.
- Also see how to activate and modify staging in flight.
Определение порядка разделения ступеней
There are three main staging types with different fuel flow behaviour.
Последовательное разделение ступеней
In this type there is no fuel flow between the tanks and there are simply two stages which are executed. First all radial engines are activated which use up their fuel. After they run out of fuel those stages are jettisoned and the center stage starts burning. This way you can drop the outer tanks the center stage have to lift less mass.
|Operation||Start S2||Jettison S2||Start S1|
Параллельное разделение ступеней
This staging is similar to the serial staging, but with the difference that the center stage is running all the time but using the fuel of the radial stages. By this staging type the radial stage will run out of fuel sooner, but when those stages get jettisoned the center tanks are still full. So this type can lift more mass with the same acceleration which could be more effective than the serial staging so you can escape the gravity faster.
|Operation||Start S2, S1||Jettison S2|
A more advanced staging type is asparagus staging. The difference to the parallel staging is, that also the radial stages are using the fuel of other radial stages. So all engines will use the fuel of 2 radial engines which deplete very fast. After they run out of fuel those 2 could be jettisoned and the engines use the next 2 radial engines. This repeats until the last radial stage is jettisoned and only the center stage is running. The feature of this type is that after jettisoning a radial stage all remaining tanks are still full so the rocket loses mass more quickly.
|Operation||Start S4, S3, S2, S1||Jettison S4||Jettison S3||Jettison S2|
Basic Staging Mechanisms
Decouplers are generally used to separate stages but you can create stages without decouplers in order to -for example- engage solid fuel boosters at just the right time without having to dump anything off your ship to do so. All you have to do is create a stage that contains only the boosters -or other parts you want engaged-. When such a stage is activated the previous stage will be merged into it, the booster now occupying the active stage with all the parts from the previous stage also remaining active. Once used up, the solid boosters can be decoupled by another stage containing only their decouplers leaving the rest of the active stage intact.
Шасси, Трапы и Посадочные опоры
Not all functional parts are influenced by staging. Some of them can be activated and deactivated multiple times even if they are not in the active stage. As of версия 0.17.1 these include the LT-2 Landing Strut, Small Gear Bay, Telus Mobility Enhancer and the Telus-LV Bay Mobility Enhancer. These parts serve a purpose that requires repeated activation and as such can be engaged and disengaged at any time.