T-1 Toroidal Aerospike "Dart" Liquid Fuel Engine.

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T-1 Toroidal Aerospike "Dart" Liquid Fuel Engine.
Part image
Liquid fuel engine by
C7 Aerospace Division
Radial size Small, Radial mounted
Cost (total) 3 850.00 Funds
Mass (total) 1.00 t
Drag 0.2
Max. Temp. 2000 K
Impact Tolerance 20 m/s
Research Hypersonic flight.png Hypersonic Flight
Unlock cost 24 500 Funds
Since version 0.15
Part configuration liquidEngineAerospike
Liquid fuel engine
Maximum thrust (1 atm) 153.53 kN
(vacuum) 180.00 kN
Isp (1 atm) 290 s
(vacuum) 340 s
Fuel consumption 10.80 Units of fuel/s

Thrust vectoring × No
Testing Environments
On the surface ✓ Yes
In the ocean ✓ Yes
On the launchpad ✓ Yes
In the atmosphere ✓ Yes
Sub orbital ✓ Yes
In an orbit ✓ Yes
On an escape ✓ Yes
Docked × No
Test by staging ✓ Yes
Manually testable ✓ Yes

The Toroidal Aerospike Rocket is a liquid fuel engine with the unique feature of being almost entirely unaffected by atmospheric pressure.


The aerospike rocket is an unusual rocket engine with intermediate thrust to weight, and relatively high fuel efficiency. Thanks to its unique nozzle, it is equally effective at all altitudes unlike other rockets. It has two important drawbacks - it cannot be stacked directly above other rocket parts, and it does not have any thrust vectoring, though it is still usually the best choice for a main engine for spaceplanes. An added advantage in this application is that aerospikes are also quite short, which can be helpful when your rear mounted engines run the risk of being dashed to pieces on the runway at the moment of takeoff.

The low length and high Isp of the aerospike also make it an option as a high thrust lander engine.

Currently (0.21), the default part.cfg is missing several part values, most notably drag. This causes it to default to 0.1, lower than most other parts. With the current drag model, this increases performance and decreases stability inside planetary atmospheres.


Toroidal Aerospike engines feature a heavy spiked nozzle. The engine makes up for this with an efficient burning of fuel at all altitudes.

C7 Aerospace Division.


  • In real life, the heavy aerospike nozzle is an advanced alternative to the classic hourglass-shaped De Laval nozzles sported by the LVT engines. The bell of a rocket nozzle contains and accelerates the supersonic exhaust gas, converting exhaust pressure into velocity along its length. The longer the nozzle, the lower the final pressure becomes. However, in an atmosphere the exhaust stream interacts with the air around it, and if its pressure falls too low in comparison the stream can become unstable and inefficient. In a vacuum, an ideal nozzle has an infinite length, but practically nozzle length is a tradeoff - shorter nozzles can handle thicker atmosphere, but don't generate the exhaust velocity of longer ones. An aerospike provides comparable performance to a De Laval nozzle in space, but at lower altitudes it can be 20-30% more efficient.
  • In versions 0.15, and 0.16, the aerospike had the highest Isp of any stock engine. In versions 0.16 and 0.17, the the aerospike had the highest TWR of any stock liquid fuel engine. As a result of these features, it benefited more from the throttle bug than any other engine.


  • Part now uses fuel and oxidizer. Thrust reduced (250 -> 175), Sea level Isp reduced (390 -> 388), mass increased (1 -> 1.5)
  • (Accidental) drag value (0.2) removed, defaults to 0.1
  • Changed part type from LiquidEngine (mass 2.5, thrust 225, fuel consumption 7.6) to LiquidFuelEngine (mass 1, thrust 250, Isp 390)
  • Initial Release