T-1 Toroidal Aerospike "Dart" Liquid Fuel Engine.

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T-1 Toroidal Aerospike "Dart" Liquid Fuel Engine.
Part image
Liquid fuel engine by
C7 Aerospace Division
Radial size Small, Radial mounted
Cost (total) 3 850.00 Funds
Mass (total) 1.00 t
Drag 0.2
Max. Temp. 2000 K
Impact Tolerance 20 m/s
Research Hypersonic flight.png Hypersonic Flight
Unlock cost 24 500 Funds
Since version 0.15
Part configuration liquidEngineAerospike
Liquid fuel engine
Maximum thrust (1 atm) 153.53 kN
(vacuum) 180.00 kN
Isp (1 atm) 290 s
(vacuum) 340 s
Fuel consumption 10.80 Units of fuel/s

Thrust vectoring × No
Testing Environments
On the surface ✓ Yes
In the ocean ✓ Yes
On the launchpad ✓ Yes
In the atmosphere ✓ Yes
Sub orbital ✓ Yes
In an orbit ✓ Yes
On an escape ✓ Yes
Docked × No
Test by staging ✓ Yes
Manually testable ✓ Yes

The Toroidal Aerospike Rocket is a liquid fuel engine with the unique feature of being almost entirely unaffected by atmospheric pressure.


The aerospike rocket is an unusual rocket engine with intermediate thrust-to-weight ratio, and relatively high fuel efficiency. Thanks to its unique nozzle, it is almost equally effective at all altitudes unlike other engines. It has two important drawbacks: it cannot be stacked directly above other parts, and it does not have any thrust vectoring. Despite these drawbacks, it is still usually the best choice for a main engine when building spaceplanes.

An added advantage in this application is that aerospikes are also quite short, which can help reduce the risk of collision with the runway during takeoff when the engine is mounted at the rear of a spaceplane. Another advantage is that the short length makes it a good alternative for the LV-909 Liquid Fuel Engine on landers, when more thrust is required or the landing takes place in an atmosphere, though it is heavier than the LV-909.


The Toroidal Aerospike is a huge breakthrough from C7 Aerospace. While heavier than previous models, with its heavy-duty exhaust nozzle, the Aerospile makes up for it with an efficient burning of fuel at all altitudes.

C7 Aerospace Division.


  • In real life, the heavy aerospike nozzle is an advanced alternative to the classic hourglass-shaped De Laval nozzles sported by the LVT engines. The bell of a rocket nozzle contains and accelerates the supersonic exhaust gas, converting exhaust pressure into velocity along its length. The longer the nozzle, the lower the final pressure becomes. However, in an atmosphere the exhaust stream interacts with the air around it, and if its pressure falls too low in comparison the stream can become unstable and inefficient. In a vacuum, an ideal nozzle has an infinite length, but practically nozzle length is a tradeoff - shorter nozzles can handle thicker atmosphere, but don't generate the exhaust velocity of longer ones. An aerospike provides comparable performance to a De Laval nozzle in space, but at lower altitudes it can be 20-30% more efficient.
  • In versions 0.15, and 0.16, the aerospike had the highest Isp of any stock engine. In versions 0.16 and 0.17, the aerospike had the highest TWR of any stock liquid fuel engine. As a result of these features, it benefited more from the throttle bug than any other engine. Between versions 0.18 and 0.21.1, a large chunk of the part.cfg was missing, resulting in the aerospike having default drag, maxtemp, and impact tolerance. This caused odd behavior under some circumstances.


  • New description
  • Missing part.cfg lines restored: drag is now 0.2, impact tolerance is now 20 m/s, and maximum temperature is now 3600 K.
  • Alternator added, engine now gains 5.0 electricity
  • cost increased from 850 to 3850
  • Part now uses fuel and oxidizer. Thrust reduced (250 -> 175), Sea level Isp reduced (390 -> 388), mass increased (1 -> 1.5)
  • (Accidental) drag value (0.2) removed, defaults to 0.1
  • (Accidental) impact tolerance value (20) removed, defaults to 9
  • (Accidental) maximum temperature value (3600) removed, defaults to 3400
  • Changed part type from LiquidEngine (mass 2.5, thrust 225, fuel consumption 7.6) to LiquidFuelEngine (mass 1, thrust 250, Isp 390)
  • Initial Release